National Geographic : 1905 Aug
FORESTRY ABROAD that revenue until that time. And then when 1909 comes, and we are released from the necessity under the treaty of Paris from giving the same privileges to Spain as to the United States, then we can have complete free trade be tween the islands and America. It is true, as Mr Ireland says, that the Phil ippines are less developed than any of the colonies to which he refers. It is true that, in a certain sense, the people are less educated. It is true that they are more like children. But it is not true that they are not the best material for self-government. It is true that those islands, the gems of the Orient, have been undeveloped in a way that it is hard to understand unless you read SAND AT HOME 375 the history of the islands, and then you see that these people were brought up to be children constantly, in order that they might not know the wickedness of the world, and that all development was restrained. Now, may we not hope that under American influence, which shall tend to uplift the islands and at the same time to invest good American and other capital there for the purpose of introducing railways and developing the wealth of these islands that there is in the soil, in the mines, in the forests- may we not hope that in 40 years hence, when Brother Ireland goes around the world again to compare the various civ ilizations, that a new light will break in on him when he looks at the islands ? FORESTRY ABROAD AND AT HOME* BY GIFFORD PINCHOT CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF FORESTRY EXCEPT China, all civilized na tions care for the forest. Un til recently the United States ranked nearly with China in this re spect, and our country still remains far behind the progressive modern nations in nearly all that relates to the protec tion, preservation, and conservative use of the forest. Japan has a well devel oped forest service and a national forest school. In Austria, Italy, and Norway and Sweden government forestry is a well-established portion of the national life. Turkey, Greece, Spain, and Por tugal give attention to the forests. Russia, dealing like ourselves with vast areas of forests in thinly peopled re gions, but by methods wholly different from our own, is drawing enormous rev enues from the systematic care and use of the forests. In Germany the scien- tific treatment of forests has reached perhaps its highest development. The foresters of France have perfected a most practical and effective general sys tem of forestry, and have created the difficult art of controlling the floods of mountain torrents by planting trees. The Republic of Switzerland, by the use of methods most instructive to citi zens of the United States, has developed a type of government forest policy more worthy of our attention and imitation than any other in Europe. In Austra lia and New Zealand forestry has al ready made important advances. In Canada the English have made real progress in forestry. The government sells the timber from its forests, but re tains possession of the lands and employs fire guards. At the Cape of Good Hope they have an excellent forest service; *A chapter from a " Primer of Forestry," part II, by Mr Pinchot, recently published by the Department of Agriculture.