National Geographic : 1907 May
348 THE NATIONAL GE Southeast, east, northeast, and north are not prevailing winds and have com paratively little influence on our climate, but when we do have a northeast wind blowing from the mainland in winter or spring, as we had for a week or ten days in March of 1906, the temperature drops several degrees below freezing and the change is felt keenly. In summer the north wind, blowing over a heated land surface, is our warmest wind. There has been an occasional cold winter, with con siderable snow, notably 1893, but it is unusual and has little effect on the aver age temperature of a number of years. I would suggest, therefore, that among the factors which modify the climate of Victoria, giving us our mild winter, warm summer days, and cool summer nights and a minimum precipitation, are the following: I. Our insular position. 2. The very uniform temperature of the Pacific to the west of us. 3. Prevailing westerly winds, with free access. 4. High mountain ranges situated at such a distance that but little of the pre cipitation caused by them extends to Vic toria. 5. The Olympic Mountains, modifying the south winds and precipitating their moisture there, so that these winds reach us cool and dry. 6. Slight precipitation throughout a large portion of the year, permitting abundant sunshine during those periods. I may add that the climate of Victoria during July and August of last year (1906) reminded me very much of that of the Nile Valley during the months of January and February. The rays of the sun were about as hot, the air as dry, the nights as cool, and there was so little rain that it was hardly noticeable. 'Report of the Chief of the Weather Bureau, 1897-8, p. 270-2 . 2Canadian Meteorological Service Summary up to 1902. SU. S. Weather Bureau Summary, 1905. 'Victoria Station, Canadian Meteorological Service, 1905-6 . SCanadian and U. S. Weather Bureau Sum mary, 1905. OGRAPHIC MAGAZINE "SCENES FROM EVERY LAND" THE National Geographic Society will probably publish about Sep tember 3o a volume of from 160 to 200 pages, containing the more striking and instructive of the many pictures that have been published in the Magazine during the past several years. The Society has received many requests from members and others desiring copies of certain of our illustrations, which we have been unable to satisfy, owing to the fact that practically all of the numbers are out of print. It is planned to include in this book pictures representing every part of the world, as well as subjects of gen eral geographic interest. The volume will consist entirely of illustrations, with from six to ten lines of explanatory text beneath each picture, and also con tain a bibliography of several pages of the standard books on different parts of the world and geographic subjects, includ ing natural history. In order that the Society may know in advance how many copies the members may demand, it is requested that every member desiring copies will fill out the blank form printed on another page and return it as soon as possible. The price of the volume will be $1.oo, and will be sent only to members subscribing for it. The volume has been prepared by Gilbert H. Grosvenor, editor of the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. PHOTOGRAPH OF OIL WELL NEAR OIL CITY, PENNSYLVANIA W HEN a well is drilled into the oil bearing sand a charge of nitro glycerine, from 10 to 200 or more quarts, is lowered into the well and exploded, to open up the sand. This results in a better flow of the oil into the well, and as a rule materially increases the production. The accompanying photograph shows the ef fect, at the surface, of the discharge of 30 quarts of the explosive at a depth of 438 feet. - S. A. Cornelius, Oil City, Pa.