National Geographic : 1907 Jul
468 THE NATIONAL GE( in 810 44' N., 650 W. It attained, in 1882, 83° 24' N., 41° W., on the north west coast of Hazen Land. In 1883 it reached 82° 15' W. on the northwest coast of Greenland, and also 80° 48' N., 78' W., on Greely Fjord. The auxiliary expeditions of 1882, under W. M. Beebe, reached Cape Sabine, about 780 30' N., and that of 1883, under Lieutenant, now General, E. A. Garlington, U. S. Army, passed a few miles to the north of that cape, and Commander, afterwards Ad miral, F. Wilde, U. S. Navy, reached that year the vicinity of Cape York, in the Yantic. The relief squadron of 1884, under Captain, now Admiral, W. S. Schley, U. S. Navy, likewise reached Cape Sabine. Dr Franz Boas explored Baffin's Land in 1883-1884. The most remarkable series of Ameri can expeditions is that due to the repeated efforts of Commander Robert E. Peary, U. S. Navy, which, beginning by a journey of fifty miles on the inland ice from Disco, in 1886, has ended in voy ages, from 1892 to 1906 (except in 1897), that have covered entire north Greenland, northern Grinnell Land, and the adjacent Polar Sea. The main points reached were as follows: 1892, crossing the inland ice to Navy Cliff, 81° 37' N., 340 W.; 1893, half-way across the inland ice, to about 80° N., 50' W.; 1895, across the inland ice to about 810 40' N., 340 W.; 1896 (summer voyage), Cape York; 1898, Fort Conger, 81° 44' N., 64° W.; 1900, Polar Sea, 83° 54' N., 300 W.; 1901, Lincoln Bay, about 82° N., 63° W.; 1902, Polar Sea, 84° 17' N., 700 W.; 1906, Polar Sea, 87° 06' N., which is the nearest approach to the north geographic pole. Connected with Commander Peary's ex plorations there were auxiliary explora tions, which visited the Greenland coast between Capes York and Sabine. Among these were: In 1891 and 1892, Kite, R. N. Keelv and G. G. Davis; Falcon, H. G. GRAPHIC MAGAZINE Bryant, 1894, which reached, in Jones Sound, 760 15' N., 820 W.; the Miranda, under Dr F. A. Cook, visited, in a sum mer voyage, Sukkertoppen, Greenland, in 1894, about 670 N.; Diana, 1899, and Erik, 1901, H. L. Bridgman. In 1894 Walter Wellman passed be yond Platen Island, north of Spitzbergen, reaching about 81' N. In his expedition to Franz Josef Land, 1898-1899, the lati tude of 820 N. was attained by one party, while another reached 81° 26' N., 650 E., on Graham Bell Island. The Ziegler Expedition, commanded by E. B. Baldwin, in 1900-1901, reached Franz Josef Land, about 810 30' N.; that under A. Fiala, in 1903-1905, to Franz Josef Land, reached, in 1903, about 82' 04' N. by sea. Auxiliary Ziegler expedi tions in 1904 and 1905 were commanded by W. S. Champ, in Fridtjof and Terra Nova. The expedition of Robert Stein to Jones Sound, 1899-1901, reached about 780 N. A. P. Low, in the Neptune, after win tering in Cumberland Gulf, 1903-1904, reached, in the summer of 1904, Cape Sabine, Smith Sound. There have been quite a number of Canadian expeditions, which, if not strictly Polar, were at least sub-Arctic. Among them may be mentioned the ex pedition of the Tyrrell brothers in the Barren Lands of Canada, 1893; the journeys of Dr Robert Bell in the Hud son Bay region, and especially his ex plorations of south Baffin Land in 1897; the discoveries of Ogilvie in the Yukon and Mackenzie basins, and the voyages of Lieutenant Gordon, Low, and others to Hudson Bay. J. E. Bernier, in Arctic, reached and landed on Melville Island, 750 06' N., 106' W. Walter Wellman established his bal loon depot in 1906 at Danes Island, Spitz bergen, 790 40' N., and now returns to that station during the present summer.