National Geographic : 1911 Jan
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE ing purposes from Russia, with a limited supply from America. The fertile Hauran and the extensive plains of Moab furnish the wheat and barley necessary for such a large city. The grain is brought thither on camels' backs or by the Mecca railway. This Mecca railroad has caused Jerusalem to suffer considerably, because the large supplies of wheat and native produce which the Holy City originally obtained east of the Jordan are now all sent by rail to Damascus. There is no doubt that Damascus, as the terminus of the Aleppo, Haifa, Bei rut, and Mecca railroads, is bound ere long to become the hub of the East. To and from it will radiate trade and com merce such as it has not known in all its history. SURVEYS IN THE PHILIPPINES ALTHOUGH Spain created a hydro graphic commission for the Philip pines as early as 1834, no systematic surveys were conducted by it, the Span ish vessels being too much occupied in the suppression of piracy and in per forming other police duty. They found time, however, to make several chrono metric expeditions for determining longi tudes and to make geographic explora tions along the coasts. The resulting charts are to be regarded as mere recon naissances, with the exception of a few detailed surveys in detached localities. These were supplemented by a British survey of the west coast of Palawan, between 185o-'54, and other exploratory surveys by the British. It was not until the end of 1900 that the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey began to extend its activities to the Philippine Archipelago, and to con duct a systematic hydrographic and topo- graphic survey of the shores, based on accurate and continuous triangulation, by means of which all the surveys have been properly coordinated. The extension of the telegraph and cable lines offered the desired opportunity for the precise longi tude determinations which were made, and which, in connection with latitude and azimuth observations, completed the required data for fixing the triangulation on the map of the world. In addition to its immediate purpose, this triangulation forms the basis for the extension of cadastral and topographic surveys into the interior, a work which has been taken in hand by the Philippine government. The latter has contributed about $70,ooo a year to the work of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, in addition to the sums appropriated by Congress. The most pressing needs of the mari ner have been met by the publication of about 120 charts by the Coast and Geo detic Survey, the great majority of which are based on its own work. The grati fying progress made is shown on the accompanying sketch-map, which repre sents the condition of the work at the end of June, 1910, and which indicates that a great contribution has been made to accurate cartography. P. A. WELKER, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. ACKNOWLEDGMENT THROUGH inadvertence the author ship of the short article, "The Man Without the Hoe," published in the last number of the magazine, was not cred ited to Mr. J. Grinnell, of the University of California, Berkeley, California. The two illustrations accompanying the paper were from photographs by Mr. Grinnell, and should have been credited to him instead of to "J. Griffin."