National Geographic : 1912 May
A FIELD HATCHERY OF THE STATE OF OREGON Here the eggs are put in troughs of running water, in which they hatch after a greater or less period, according to the temperature of the water. The eggs are picked over every day and all sterile or objectionable ones are thrown out. It is necessary to screen the troughs at this place on account of birds, which enter boldly and steal the eggs. The water ousel is the worst of these thieves. Note and photo by Shirley C. Hulse. going many privations, repeatedly sub jected to great danger from attacks of Indians and outlaws, and devising meth ods which showed the possibilities of sal mon culture and led to the present extra ordinary development of this art. The original Baird hatchery, still in active operation, is now supplemented by numerous other government stations, which may be regarded as lineal descend ants. Two of these are in the Sacra mento Valley, in California; four are in the Columbia basin, in Oregon and Washington; four are in the Puget Sound region, and two are in Alaska. The three Pacific-coast States now main tain more than 30 salmon hatcheries, the largest number being in Washington. In British Columbia II hatcheries are oper ated by the government. A feature of the salmon industry which is not met with in any other branch of the fisheries has been the establishment and maintenance by private interests of hatcheries on various parts of the coast. At present this practice is confined to Alaska, where, in 1911, five hatcheries belonging to canning companies pro duced and liberated many millions of young red salmon. THE VAST EXTENT OF SALMON CULTURE The eggs of the salmons are .2 to .25 inch in diameter, and are the largest handled by the fish culturist. They are easily obtained by intercepting the fish on their way to the spawning grounds by means of racks, traps, seines, etc., and then, when exactly ripe, by expressing by firm pressure on the abdomen. The size and activity of the salmons make it necessary for two or three men to work together in holding the fish and relieving them of their eggs and milt, and the largest individuals are most readily managed by putting them in a straight jacket.