National Geographic : 1913 Feb
Photo by George C. Martin LUPINES GROWING THROUGH CRACKS IN THE ASH NEAR KODIAK, SEPTEMBER 4, 1912 "The stronger-stemmed plants, especially the fireweed, lupines, and some of the grasses, forced their way up through the cracks in the ash, and even through its solid mass where the thickness was not too great" (see page 178). is to be expected on Kodiak and Afog nak islands and in lesser degree on the southern end of Kenai Peninsula. The leaves of the currants, salmon berries, and many other of the shrubs and herbs on Kenai Peninsula and Prince William Sound were blighted by the dust or by the acid rain which fell there. This effect, curiously enough, did not occur in the district of thicker ash. Marine life was affected to a larger degree than would perhaps be expected. The writer observed that the barnacles and mussels as far down as low tide in Katmai Bay were mostly dead. Kelp is apparently dead as far as the eastern end of Afognak Island. This is indeed a catastrophe, since the kelp is the one great aid to navigation on the Alaskan coast. Cod and halibut are reported to have died in great numbers in the shal lower waters of lower Cook Inlet. ANIMALS STRICKEN WITH BLINDNESS The bears on Kodiak and Afognak islands were made bold by hunger, and attacked cattle in close proximity to the villages. It is reported that some of the bears were blind. In the vicinity of Iliamna Lake, where not over 4 inches and for the most part less than I inch of ash fell, most of the small birds died, many rabbits were made blind, and the reindeer were se riously affected by the dust. Dead gulls, geese, ducks, ptarmigan, snipe, hawks, and many small birds were found at the mouth of Kakhonak River. A dead eagle was found hanging in a tree in such a position that he was probably killed by flying into the tree when blind. Blind rabbits, and birds which were either blind or had their eyes affected, were noted at several places in the Iliamna district. Small fish in some of the creeks were killed, and the fish in the lakes were driven offshore into deep water. Small birds, squirrels, marmots, and mice were killed at Cold Bay. Mosqui toes were entirely exterminated through out the greater part of the district in which the ash fell.