National Geographic : 1913 Oct
MAP OF THE CAUCASUS, SHOWING THE HIGHLANDS OF DAGHESTAN This isthmus, between the Caspian and the Black seas-a territory of 180,603 square miles-is under the jurisdiction ofagovernor-general. He rules, in the name of the Czar, over three provinces, or governments, north of the mountains (Caucasia) and over eleven south ofthem (Trans Caucasia), inhabited by II,735,1oo people, of whom 87 per cent are illiterate. The population is extraordinarily mixed; noless than 46distinct nationalities are recognized. Some of these peoples are nomadic stock-breeders, while others, the settled inhabitants, areingreat part devoted to agriculture. There are only two large cities, Tiflis and Baku, both of which have about 200,000 inhabitants, but there areeight ornine other towns reaching the 50,000 mark. Taken as a whole, the Caucasus is distinctly prosperous; the exportsfrom itsBlack Sea ports amount to some $50,ooo,ooo annually, and show a tendency to increase each year. Petroleum is the most valuable product exported, followed by silk, wheat and other cereals, manganese ore, and timber. The imports do not amount to anything like the same value,reaching atotal ofonly about $10,ooo,ooo000, machinery being the most valuable item.