National Geographic : 1916 May
FURTHER EXPLORATIONS IN THE LAND OF THE INCAS 439 the results of "trusting to luck" and "liv ing as the natives do" means not only loss of efficiency in the day's work, but also lessened powers of observation and diminished enthusiasm for the drudgery of scientific exploration. Exciting things are always easy to do, no matter what you are living on, but frequently they produce less important results than tasks which depend upon daily drudgery; and daily drudgery de pends upon good daily food. THE QUESTION OI RATIONS In 1915 each unit food box, as we have intimated, provided a balanced ration for two men for eight days, breakfast and supper being hearty, cooked meals, and luncheon light and uncooked. It was not intended that the men should depend en tirely on the food boxes, but should vary their diet as much as possible by what ever the country affords, which in south ern Peru frequently means potatoes, corn, eggs, mutton, and bread. Nevertheless each case contained sliced bacon, tinned corned beef, roast beef, chicken, crushed oats, milk, cheese, salmon, coffee, sugar, rice, army bread, salt, sweet chocolate, assorted jams, pickles, dried fruits, and vegetables. By seeing that the jam, dried fruits, soups, and vegetables are well as sorted, a sufficient variety is procured without destroying the balanced character of the ration. On account of the great difficulty of transportation in the southern Andes we have had to eliminate from the unit cases foods that contain a large amount of water and relatively little nutriment, like French peas, baked beans, canned fruits, etc., however delicious and desirable they may be. We found it possible, however, to add somewhat to the variety by pro viding in our warehouse at headquarters a few cases of luxuries which could be drawn upon from time to time, including such things as butter, tea, catsup, kip pered herring, sausages, and pancake flour. Whenever a party went out for a new trip they were encouraged to take several pounds of "extras" along, in or der to break the monotony of the food boxes. Undoubtedly there is much to be gained in keeping up the spirits of the men by providing an appetizing variety on the table. The most highly appreciated article of food in the entire list was oatmeal, which, on account of being partially cooked, is readily prepared in an attractive manner, even at high elevations, where rice cannot be properly boiled. On the other hand, it was difficult to satisfy the members of the expedition by providing the right amount of sugar. At the beginning of the field season the al lowance-one-third of a pound per day per man-seemed excessive, and the di rector was criticized for having over loaded the boxes with too much sugar. But after a month in the field the allow ance proved to be too small and toward the end of the expedition had to be sup plemented. In addition to the food, we have found it advisable to include in each box a cake of laundry soap, two yards of dish towel ing, and three empty cotton-cloth bags, to be used for carrying food, collecting specimens, etc. PRECAUTIONS AGAINST DISEASE While the food taken on an expedition largely determines the general health of the members, it cannot entirely take the place of medicines and bandages. Each camping party was provided with a "first aid" outfit, and every man carried in his personal luggage a pocket medicine case containing quinine, aspirin, bismuth, compound cathartic, bichloride of mer cury for wounds, and permanganate of potash for snake bites. Furthermore, from previous experi ence we knew that it would be a great advantage to the expedition to establish a small dyspensary at headquarters, where the residents of the vicinity would be welcome and where a small supply of drugs and bandages would always be ac cessible. We knew that our headquarters would be at least 30 miles from the near est drug store. Accordingly, our medical equipment was selected with this in mind. In addition, our surgeon was supplied with an African tropical field equipment, carried in a steel chest designed to with stand the hardest kind of usage and to meet all ordinary emergencies.