National Geographic : 1917 Oct
905. The Friendly Islands of the South Pa cific, constituting the Protectorate of Tonga, have an ensign with a red field and a white canton in which appears the cross of St. George. 906. The standard of the Protectorate of Tonga has a quartered field, the first and fourth gold, the second red, and the third blue. The first quarter bears three six-pointed stars. The red quarter bears a crown. The third quarter bears a flying dove. On the fourth quarter are three "big sticks." Upon the center is a six-pointed white star bearing a small St. George's cross. 907. The customs flag of the Protectorate of Tonga consists of a field the upper part of which is blue, the lower part white, with a white canton, upon which is imposed the red cross of St. George. On the white part of the field are the initials H M C, proclaiming His Majesty's Customs. AUSTRALIA'S FLAGS 908. The flag of the Governor General of Australia is the familiar union jack bearing upon the intersection of the crosses a wreath encircled, crowned star, which is the badge of the Commonwealth. 909. The star of Australia originally had six points, one for each of the original States, but was altered to include a point for the Northern Territory. The present badge of the Common wealth is therefore a seven-pointed star, with a crown above, set within a laurel wreath. 9go. The blue ensign of the Commonwealth of Australia has a large seven-pointed star be low the union, and on the fly end five small stars representing the Southern Cross. The Southern Cross exercises a strong appeal to the people south of the Equator. Even Humboldt felt its influence and said that in the solitude of the seas it was hailed as a friend from whom he and his companions had long been separated. This constellation never sets in Australia (see also 835). g91. By a warrant of the Lords Commis sioners, issued in 1903, vessels registered in Australia were authorized to fly the red ensign or merchant flag of Great Britain "having in the center of the lower canton next the staff and pointed directly to the center of the St. George's Cross a white six-pointed star, indi cating the six Federated States of Australia," and in the fly the Southern Cross, as in the blue ensign. In 1908 the desirability of adding a seventh point to the star of Australia, for the Northern Territory, was recognized, and merchant vessels were authorized to fly the red ensign as pictured here. 912. A blue Maltese Cross coming down from the order of St. John and bearing the crown of the Empire on the intersection forms the badge of Queensland. 913. New South Wales has for its badge a St. George's cross on white, with the lion of the British Empire on the intersection and four golden stars of thesouthern cross on the arms. 914. The State of Victoria in the Common wealth of Australia has for its badge a blue field bearing the constellation of the southern cross, with the royal crown of the Empire above. 915. South Australia has made the white backed piping crow take the place of the Amer ican spread eagle on her arms. The badge of that State consists of a yellow field bearing the piping crow displayed. 916. The celebrated black swan, which was first discovered on western Australia's principal river, since named the Swan, has served to typify in the popular mind the contrariety of the southern continent's flora and fauna to those of the rest of the world. This bird rep resented on a circular gold field has been ap propriately chosen as the badge of western Australia. 917. A red lion passant upon a circular white field serves as the design on the badge of Tasmania. 918. The badge of the territory of Papua is a white disk, with the name of the territory below and the crown of the British Empire above. 919. The flag of the North Borneo Company is a British union jack, bearing upon its inter secting crosses a red lion, on a field of gold. 920. Sabah, a small settlement on the Ma lacca Strait side of the Malay peninsula, and included within the State of Selangor, has a governor whose flag is yellow, with a red lion centered, in what the exponents of heraldry call a passant guardant attitude. 921. Sarawak, a territory of some 42,000 square miles on the coast of Borneo, has a yellow flag upon which is imposed a cross of St. George, the half of which, next the staff, is black instead of the regulation red. Upon the intersection of this cross is superimposed a crown. 922. The flag of the Rajah of Sarawak is like that of the country he rules, except that the arm of the cross next the fly is split apart, and each section tapered, extending to a corner of the fly. In 1842 Sir James Brooke bought a large territory from the Sultan of Brunei. He ruled this country for a long time as the Rajah of Sarawak, his nephew succeeding to the posi tion in 1868. The population of Sarawak is estimated at 500,000 Malays, Dyaks, Jayans, Kenyahs, Muruts, with Chinese and other set tlers. 923. The Straits Settlements, a British col ony which comprises Singapore, Penang, and Malacca, on the Strait of Malacca, has for a badge a red diamond with three crowns on a three-armed field of white. 924. Labuan, which was formerly the small est colony in the British Empire, being about the size of the Isle of Wight, but which has since been incorporated in the Straits Settle ments colony, has a badge which shows a brigantine sailing past a very high rock, beyond which is rising a golden sun. 925. The badge of Ceylon, whose authentic history goes back to the 5th century B. C ., when an invasion of Hindus from northern India established the Sinhalese dynasty, has a pagoda, in front of which is an elephant. The background is blue and the foreground green, surrounded by a diamond-studded border of red and gold.