National Geographic : 1917 Oct
itself with any other nation. There is no pub lic debt and the inhabitants have not been liable to military service since 1867. 768. With its tricolor of red, white, and blue in three horizontal bars, red at the top and blue at the bottom, the flag of Luxemburg flies over a country that did not raise a hand to check the invader in 1914. An alien army now passes over its soil at will and unresented. The population of Luxemburg is approximately 260,000, and it is governed by a reigning Grand Duchess and a Chamber of Deputies. The Grand Duchy was included from 1815 to 1866 in the Germanic Confederation. By the treaty of London in 1867 it was declared neutral ter ritory and its integrity and independence were guaranteed. 769. The Prince of Monaco flies a flag con sisting of a white field upon which is a crowned shield, covered with lozenge-shaped figures of red and silver, surrounded by the collar of the order of St. Charles, instituted in 1863. The shield bears as a pendant a Maltese cross. The supporters are two monks with swords. The motto placed over the shield is "Deo Juvante" (God Helping). MONACO-SMALLEST NATION ON EARTH 770. The red and white flag of Monaco floats over the smallest nation on earth. The entire area of the territory, whose symbol of authority it is, is only eight square miles. Al though it is smallest in area, there are three smaller in population. It has 23,000 inhabit ants, as compared with 5,231 for Andorra, 10,716 for Liechtenstein, and 11,513 for San Marino. Monaco is a small principality on the Mediterranean, surrounded by the French de partment of Alpes-Maritime, except on the side toward the sea. After 968 A. D . it belonged to the house of Grimaldi. The reigning prince was dispossessed during the French Revolu tion, in 1792, and died in 1795. In 1814 the principality was reestablished, but placed under the protection of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the treaty of Vienna in 1815. In 1848 the towns of Mentone and Roccabruna (now known as Roquebrune) revolted and declared themselves free. The prince thereupon ceded his rights over them to France and the principality thus became geographically an enclave of France, when the Sardinian garrison was withdrawn and the protectorate established in 1815 ended. The prince was an absolute ruler until 1911, when a representative government was set up. 771. The State flag of Montenegro has a red field bordered with white. In the center is the royal coat-of-arms, with its double headed spread-eagle in silver and holding in its talons a scepter and an orb. A small shield on the breast of the bird contains the letters "H I," and underneath the eagle is a golden lion passant. The initial H is the Montene grin N and refers to. Nicholas, the King. "I" is the Roman numeral, the letters together standing for Nicholas I. 772. The military standard of Montenegro consists of a square field of red bordered with white, a Greek cross centered upon the red. The cross bears at its intersection the "H I" of the Montenegrin coat-of-arms. 773. The naval flag of Montenegro is a tri color with red at the top, blue in the middle, and white at the bottom in horizontal stripes. On the blue is a gold crown, below which are the letters "H I." The merchant flag is the same as the naval ensign, except that the letters and crown are omitted. 774. Morocco's flag now consists of a red field upon which is imposed a five-pointed star of striking design. This star proclaims the passing of Turkish influence in Morocco. Under the old regime the familiar crescent of the Mohammedan world was borne on the Mo roccan flag where the star is now imposed. The old flag of Morocco was red, bearing what appeared to be scissors, but which were in reality crossed yataghans. 775. The national flag of the Netherlands consists of three horizontal bars, red at the top, blue at the bottom, and white between. It is national flag, ensign, and merchant flag-all in one. In the sixteenth century it was orange, white, and blue, the orange being in honor of William the Silent, Prince of Orange. Both the victories of Van Tromp and De Reuter were gained under the present colors (see 377). 776. The royal standard of the Netherlands is buff quartered by a cross of blue. In each buff quarter there is placed a hunter's horn in blue, and upon the intersection of the cross is the royal coat-of-arms, consisting of a blue ground dotted with golden billets and bearing a crowned golden lion rampant. The lion grasps in one paw a naked sword and in the other a cluster of arrows. The shield has for its crest a crown. 777. The standard of the Prince of Nether lands is the reverse of the royal standard (1776) in its coloring. The cross is buff and the quarters are blue. Instead of the hunter's horns of the royal standard there are golden lions like the lion of the coat-of-arms, which appears in the center of the cross in both standards. 778. The flag of the Arabians, also typical of Muscat and Zanzibar, is scarlet. Elsewhere the red flag is the emblem of mutiny and dis order, and was carried recently by the Revo lutionists of Russia during the eventful days which marked the overthrow of the Romanoff dynasty and the establishment of a republican form of government. The red flag was a widely used national emblem two centuries ago, Spain, Venice, Genoa, Tetuan, Salley, and Camphen being partial to it (see 1141, 1188, 1193, and 1194). 779. The Governors of Surinam and Cura cao bear a flag which has the national colors of the Netherlands, with the addition of two white disks in the red stripe near the staff. 780. The merchant reserve of the Nether lands bears a flag which is like the national ensign, except that an anchor and a crown are imposed upon the middle of the white bar. In order to make room for these, an arc is cut out of the blue stripe at the bottom and the red stripe at the top and the white stripe enlarged accordingly. 781. The ensign of the Governor General of the Dutch East Indies is a triangular swal low-tail pennant showing the national colors of the Netherlands and attached to the flag staff by the means of a toggle.