National Geographic : 1917 Oct
alike except for the change in stripes, for they both have the coat-of-arms and the same col ors. The eight-pointed star is on both mer chant flags (443 and 463), but on the latter it is placed on an oval shield. 444. ECUADOR. -This flag of Ecuador when it was a part of the Republic of Colombia had as its coat-of-arms a design which was very similar to that used at present (see 480). The circle of seven stars in the upper part of the blue stripe represented the seven provinces of the republic. 445. SOUTH PERU. -The flag of this coun try was in existence but a short time, for the Peruvian - Bolivian Confederation, to which South Peru belonged, only endured about two years. In the process of evolution which brought about the present South American na tions, stirring events occurred with great ra pidity and States formed by political factions were dissolved almost overnight. This par ticular confederation was inaugurated May I, 1837, and consisted of three States-North Peru, South Peru, and Bolivia-with a presi dent for each and with General Santa Cruz as the supreme director, or dictator, of the whole. It was dissolved following severe fighting and the overthrow of the dictator. 446. GUATEMALA.-Conquered in 1525 by the Spaniards under Don Pedro de Alvarado, who became famous as Cortes' chief lieutenant in the conquest of Mexico and was dispatched by him to effect the conquest of the lands to the south, Guatemala continued under Spanishi rule until 1821, when independence was at tained. The Guatemala of those days con sisted of the whole of Central America, and it was not until 1839 that it broke up under civil wars into the five republics of Guatemala, Honduras, San Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The flag shown in the illustration was the standard adopted May 31, 1858, which preceded the present ensign (see 482). 447 - 448- 449. ENTRE RIos, CORRIENTES, SANTA FE. -These were the flags of the Span ish settlements established in what is now Ar gentina. In the days of the viceroys they were under the control of a government located at Buenos Aires, which in turn was under the authority of the vice-royalty of Peru. Later Buenos Aires became the seat of its own viceroy, having authority over the Argentine Confederation, composed of these three States and the territory now occupied by Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Entre Rios, Corri entes, and Santa Fe are still in existence, their flags today having the same relative impor tance of our own State flags. The golden sun in the center of the Entre Rios flag is still used in the same position on the ensign of modern Argentina (see 451). THE FLAGS OF PAN-AMERICA 450. The flag of the Pan-American Union is a pennant adopted in 1907 and embodies all of the colors of the twenty-one republics of the Western Hemisphere. 451. The national banner of the Argentine Republic was devised in 1812. The Congress of Tucuman formally recognized it as the standard of the new Argentine Republic, then officially designated "The United Provinces of the Rio de La Plata." The Argentine banner is something more than merely the national flag of that Republic. It is associated in a large measure with the glories of Latin Amer ica, for, under the leadership of General de San Martin (see also 431) and General Bel grano, it helped to free Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. This flag has three stripes, sky blue at the top and bottom and white in the middle. In the center of the field is a golden representation of the sun. 452. The merchant flag of Argentina, known as the "Bandera Menor," or flag of peace, is exactly like the national ensign, except that the blazing sun is omitted. 453. The presidential flag of the Argentine Republic consists of a banner upon which the national coat-of-arms is emblazoned. The es sential principle of the coat-of-arms is that of an ellipse divided by the horizontal diameter, the field of the upper half being sky-blue and that of the lower half white. In the center of the upper section is a carmine liberty cap, sup ported by a vertical golden staff, held upright by two clasped hands. Around the ellipse is a border consisting of a wreath of two inter twined laurel branches. At the apex there is a representation of a golden sun. 454. After Bolivia was liberated by the sword of Gen. Simon Bolivar (see also 433), a national flag and coat-of-arms were adopted. The national ensign consists of three stripes red at the top, gold in the middle, and green at the bottom. The red denotes the animal kingdom, the gold the mineral kingdom, and the green the vegetable kingdom. In the cen ter of the field is placed the national coat-of arms. 455. The merchant banner of Bolivia is a duplicate of the national ensign, with the coat of-arms omitted. 456. Bolivia's coat-of-arms is elliptical in form. In the center appears the mountain crest of Potosi, celebrated for its traditional mineral wealth; beneath this are an alpaca, a sheaf of wheat, and a breadfruit tree. In the upper part is a rising sun with light cloud ef fect. At the apex is the inscription, "Bolivia." On each side of the oval are three Bolivian banners, a cannon, two rifles with fixed bayo nets pointing upward at an angle; on the right is an Inca battle-axe and on the left a liberty cap; above all, as a crest, is the condor of the Andes between two branches of laurel and olive. 457. The flag of the Argentine Admiral ashore is blue, with three stars next to and parallel with the staff, and an anchor in the center of the field.