National Geographic : 1917 Oct
by an eagle bearing in its beak a streamer carrying the legend, "United We Stand, Di vided We Fall." It is said that the original intention of the seal was to represent two friends in hunter's garb, their right hands clasped, their left resting on each other's shoul ders, their feet on the verge of a precipice, which gave significance to the legend. But the engravers for the State have uniformly dressed the figures more to suit their ideals, with vary ing heraldic effect. The escutcheon is sup ported by four United States flags, a drum, and a cannon. 316. TENNESSEE.- This unique flag was adopted in 1905. It consists of a fly one and two-thirds times as long as it is wide. At the outer or free end is a blue bar separated from the red field by a thin white stripe. Superim posed upon the red field is a circular disk of blue separated from the field by a thin circle of white, its width the same as the width of the white stripe separating the blue bar from the red field. Upon the blue of the circular disk are arranged three five-pointed stars of white, distributed at equal intervals around a point which is the center of the blue field. Tennessee was the third State to join the Union (after the original thirteen), a fact which the three stars recall. 317. OHIO has the only pennant-shaped flag among all the States. The law making it the official ensign of the "Buckeye State" was adopted in 1902. The outer quarter of the field is swallow-tailed, the field itself consist ing of five stripes-three red and two white red at the bottom and top. At the staff end of the field is a triangular blue canton with the base resting on the staff and the apex reaching half way across the field. On this canton is a large circular "0" in white, inside of which is a red disk. Seventeen stars, representing all of the States at the time of Ohio's entrance into the Union, appear grouped around the circular "O." All of these stars are five pointed. 318. LOUISIANA.- Those who contend that the Stars and Stripes were used unofficially long before they were adopted by the Conti nental Congress, on June 14, 1777, can point to the history of the Louisiana-State flag as show ing that banners are often used unofficially long before being officially adopted. It is said that this flag is a hundred years old, having become the unofficial flag of Louisiana about the time of the War of 1812, yet it was not legally adopted until July I, 1912. The meas ure making it the flag of the State is simply a statute of ratification, and sets forth that it shall consist of a solid blue field with the coat of-arms of the State, a pelican feeding its young, the ribbon beneath, also in white, con taining in blue the motto of the State, "Union, Justice, Confidence." The law provides that the flag shall be displayed on the State House whenever the General Assembly is in session and on public buildings throughout the State on all regular holidays and whenever other wise decreed by the Governor or the General Assembly. 319. INDIANA. -Although the legislature of the State of Indiana declared in 1901 that its official banner should be no other than the American flag itself, it reconsidered this action in 1917 and adopted a State emblem. The field of the flag is blue; its dimensions are five feet six inches fly by four feet four inches on the staff, and upon the field is centered a flaming torch in gold, or buff, with nineteen stars. Thirteen stars are circled around the torch, representing the original thirteen States. In side this circle is a half circle of five stars below the torch, representing the five States admitted to the Union prior to Indiana. The outer circle of stars is so arranged that one of them appears directly in the middle at the top of the circle. The word "Indiana" is placed in a half circle over a large star, typifying the State, which is situated just above the flame of the torch. Rays from the torch radiate to the three stars of the outer circle. This banner is to be carried in addition to the American flag by the militia forces of Indiana and in all pub lic functions in which the State officially ap pears. 320. MISSISSIPPI is one of the States that have had more than one flag. The old flag was white with a blue canton with a single white star thereon. On the body of the white wasia green tree. The flag was fringed with red and the pike was surmounted by a toma hawk. After the Civil War the State adopted a new flag. This consists of a blue, white, and red field, the red at the bottom, with a red canton reaching down to the red stripe of the field. A St. Andrew's cross with thirteen stars is imposed upon the canton. The tomahawk of the old flagstaff is replaced on the new pike by a regulation spear head. 321. ILLINOIS' State flag was authorized in the year 1915. The law provides that the re production of the emblem on the great seal of Illinois be permitted when reproduced in black or in natural colors on a white background for use as a State banner. The seal of the State of Illinois was adopted in 1819, the year after the State was admitted to the Union. In the center is an American eagle perched on an American shield; back of the shield and help ing to support it is an olive branch. In its beak the eagle holds a scroll containing the motto, "State Sovereignty-National Union." 322. ALABAMA'S colors were adopted by the act of February 16, 1895, which provides that the flag of the State shall be a crimson cross of St. Andrew upon a field of white; the bars forming the cross shall be not less than six inches broad, and must extend diagonally across the flag from side to side. The flag shall be hoisted on the dome of the capitol when the two houses of the legislature are in session, and shall be used by the State on all occasions when it may be necessary or con sistent to display a flag, except when in the opinion of the Governor the national flag should be displayed. It is said that the pur pose of the legislature in enacting the State flag law was to preserve in permanent form some of the more distinctive features of the Confederate battle flag, especially the St. Andrew's cross (see 375). This being true, the Alabama flag should be square in all its lines and measurements and conform to the well-known battle flag of the Confederacy.