National Geographic : 1919 Dec
510 THE NATIONAL GEC the armistice. It is also given to those who served in Russia or Siberia during 1919 and who joined the service subsequent to Novem ber II, 1918. Conscientious objectors who refused to ac cept military service and the men who were rejected at camps before doing military duty rendered no military services and therefore will not be given the medal. Members of the Y. M. C. A . and other welfare societies are also not eligible for it, as they were neither soldiers nor sailors and cannot be classed as combatants. Th e medal was designed by Mr. J. E . Fraser, of New York City, under the direction of the Commission of Fine Arts. The obverse shows a winged Victory. On the reverse is a list of the nations which participated in the actual fighting. To show participation in hostilities clasps are awarded for the following: Cambrai-between May 12 and December 4, 1917 (2,500 clasps is the estimated num ber to be awarded). Somme Defensive-between March 21 and April 6, 1918 (2,200 clasps). Lys-between April 9 and April 27, 1918 (500 ; , clasps). Aisne-between May 27 and June 5, 191S (27,500 clasps). Montdidier-Noyon-between June 9 and S June 13, 1918 (27,000 clasps). Chamagne-Marne-between July 15 and July 18, 1918 (85,000 clasps). * Aisne-Marne-between July 18 and Augt" 6, 1918 (270,000 clasps). So.amme Offensive-between August 8 and s November I, 1918 (54,000 clasps). Oise-Aisne-between August 18 and Novem ber II, 1918 (85,ooo clasps). Ypres-Lys- between August 19 and Novem ber IT1r,918T (io8,ooo clasps). St. 1Mihiel-between September 12 and Sep tember 16, 1918 (550,ooo clasps). Meuse-Argonne-between September 26 and November IT, 1918 (1,200,ooo clasps). Vittorio-Veneto-between October 24 and November 4, 1918 (1,200 clasps). In addition, there is the Defensive Sector Clasp, which is given for any occupation of a defensive sector or for participation in any en gagement in France, Italy, Russia, or Siberia not enumerated above, but only one Defensive Sector clasp is given to any one individual. These clasps are called battle clasps, and for each one a small bronze star is worn on the service ribbon. (See illustration under No. 20, Life Saving Medal, first class.) In addition, there are five service clasps which are not given to those who are entitled to a battle clasp, and no stars are worn for them on the service ribbon. They are: France. - For any service in France between April 6, 1917, and November iT, 1918. Italy.- For any service in Italy between April 6, 1917, and November II, 1918. England.-For any service in England be tween April 6, 1917, and November II, 1918. (With the additional proviso that this clasp will only be given to those who served in England and nowhere else overseas.) Siberia. -For any service in Siberia since April 6, 1917. )GRAPHIC MAGAZINE Russia.-For any service in Russia since April 6, 1917. Crews of transports receive one of these clasps, depending on the country to which they sailed. The Navy has sixteen clasps, but only one is given to any one person. A bronze star is worn on the service ribbon to indicate possession of a clasp. Naval forces that served with the Army receive the Army clasps and stars to which their services entitle them. (For further particulars see preceding article.) The Navy clasps are: Transport.-On transport duty in North At lantic. Escort.- On escort duty in North Atlantic. Armed Guard. - On armed guard duty in North Atlantic. Grand Fleet.- Between December 9, 1917, and November I1, 1918. Patrol.-In European waters prior to May 25, 1918 (the date of the appearance of German submarines off American coast), anywhere in North Atlantic after May 25. Submarine.-Same conditions as Patrol Destroyer.-Same conditions as Patrol. Aviation.-Same conditions as Patrol. Naval Battery.- Between July 10 and No vember Ir, 1918. White Sea.-Service on vessel making a S White Sea port. Asiatic.- Service on vessel making Asiatic > port. Mine Laying. -Between May 26 and Novem ber II, 1918. Mine Sweeping. Salvage. 'Atlantic Fleet.- Between May 25 and No vember II, 1918. Overseas. -On shore in Europe. ORGANIZATION SHOULDER INSIGNIA 39. The First Army was organized for the St. Mihiel offensive, under command of Gen eral Pershing himself. It then consisted of the First, Fourth, and Fifth Corns, with the Thirty third, Thirty-fifth, Eightieth, and Ninety-first Divisions in reserve. The object was attained without putting any of the reserve divisions in the line. Later the First Army was commanded by Lieut. Gen. Hunter Liggett, and at the com mencement of the Meuse-Argonne drive con sisted of the First, Third, and Fifth Corps, with the First, Twenty-ninth, and Eighty-sec ond Divisions in reserve. In the lower part of the insignia are devices to represent different arms of the service: a red and white patch for army artillery; red castle for the army engineers; red, white, and blue cocarde for the air service of the army. etc. In the reorganization after the armistice the First Army consisted of the First, Fifth, and Eighth Corps and immediately began prepara tions to leave France for the United States. 40. The Second Army was organized on October lo, during the Meuse-Argonne opera tion, and operated between the Moselle and the Meuse, under Lieut. Gen. R. L . Bullard, during the remainder of the fighting.