National Geographic : 1921 Feb
THE NEW MAP OF EUROPE Greater Greece, provided the recent polit ical events have not permanently alien ated Allied sympathies. Greece also is pressing its claim to the 1;Epirus district, embracing some 2,000 square miles. Albania is the rival claim ant here. RUMANIA DOI'BLES ITS AREA AND POPULATION By its recovery of the fertile province of Bessarabia, which Russia absorbed at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War of 1878, and the acquisition of the former Austrian crownland, Bukowina, together with Transylvania, a part of Banat and other provinces from Hungary. Rumania becomes the largest of the Balkan States, with an area equal to the combined areas of Czechoslovakia, Hungary. and Austria and with 17,000.000 inhabitants.* To the northeast, across the Dniester River, lies the nascent republic of the Ukraine, whose territorial limits can as vet be indicated only vaguely. It is a land rich in agricultural resources, espe cially that portion known as the "Blacl Soil District." Some statisticians have computed its area to be in the neighbor hood of 200.000 square miles (twice that of lugo-Slavia). with a population of 30.ooo.ooo.T Ukrainian propagandists lay claim to 330,000 square miles and 45,000.000 population. 1'RO:'LI MS WHICH TilE: N1EW NATIONS FACE Even after the course and extent of its boundaries have been determined, a new nation has not yet launched its ship of state upon the turbulent seas of interna tional politics and commercial rivalry. Indeed, boundaries are little more than the prelimiinary plans or drawings, indi cating the length, breadth, and tonnage of the proposed "ship." * For accounts of Rumania's history and as pirations, see in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZIxE "Rumania and Its Rubicon," by John Oliver La Gorce. September, 1916; "Ru mania, the Pivotal State," by James Iloward Gore, October, 1915, and "Rumania and Her Ambitions," by Frederick Moore, October, 1913. , See "The Ukraine, Past and Present," by Nevin 0. Winter, in the NATIONAL GEcOGRAPHlC .\lAcAZiNE for August, 1918. Now begins the great task of con structive organization, the training of officers, the equipping and provisioning for the voyage. Each of the new states of Europe is beginning its national life with even less capital in experience than had the Thir teen Colonies after the American Revo lution. In some instances they lack such machinery of government as customs posts and the trained officers to admin ister them; their postal systems have been disorganized by violent severance from old governments, and the innumer able new postage stamps in themselves tell a fascinating story: mints have had to be established to provide a complete system of coinage. NIE\ STATES ARE': WRESTLING WITH FISCAL SYSTEMS The development of a sound fiscal sys tem is one of the most difficult problems of modern statecraft, especially in a world where normal exchange rates no longer exist, for in the financial world chaos has followed the overthrow of credit. That credit must be reestablished both at home and abroad before any of these nascent nations can make substan tial progress. Parliamentary debate must crystallize into wise legislation. Even the election machinery which enables a peo ple to register their will requires devel opment in some regions, where universal suffrage has never been enjoyed hereto fore. In the restored countries the problem is as difficult as in the new. Poland, for example, has not been called upon to ex ercise the functions of self-government in more than a century, while in the case of Bohemia (the land of the Czechs) the gap of time between the suppression of the ancient free constitution of the king dom and the advent of President Mlas aryk under the new constitution, adopted by the Constituent Assembly in Prague on February 29, 1920, is nearly three hundred years. How many of these craft of state can sail on "In spite of rock and tempest's roar. In spite of false lights on the shore," none can prophesy.