National Geographic : 1921 Feb
THE NEW MAP OF EUROPE * Showing the Boundaries Established by the Peace Con ference at Paris and by Subsequent Decisions of the Supreme Council of the Allied and Associated Powers BY RALPH A. GRAVES In order to make the ew Map of Europe of service to the largest number of GEOGRAPTHIC readers, it has seemed preferable to retain the familiar forms of place names rather than adopt tlose conformable to the tongues of the several new nations within whose boundaries they ntowz appear. It is the indisputable right of the inhabitantsof a country to say how its geographic names shall be spelled and pronounced, but it would be a source of confusion to the average student to have his entire geographical and historical background swept away by the limination, for example, of Prague in favor of the Czechoslovak form of PRATHA; of lWarsaw in favor of its Polish equivalent, W\RSZAWA ; of Vilna inlfavor of the hiitlhuanian VILNIUS ; of Dantig in favor of the Polish GoN.\s ;and of ilume in favor of the Slavic RIKA. (See also pages 143 and 145.) T HE NEW MAP of Europe is before us, born of the treaties of peace with the vanquished Central Powers. These treaties-those of Ver sailles with Germany and Hungary, that of St. Germain with Austria, that of Neuilly with Bulgaria, and that of Sevres with Turkey-purport to erect new bloundary lines between countries of con flicting economic interests, antagonistic racial distinctions, and rival historic tra ditions. How long these boundary lines are re spected and how materially, as necessity arises, they can be modified without re sort to force will depend upon the wis dom exercised by those statesmen upon whom devolved the responsibilities grow ing out of the greatest conflict of human history; how long these boundaries can be made to endure against the assaults of predatory interests, each nation against its neighbors, depends upon the firmness * Additional copies of the New Map of Europe (30x33 inches), with index, may be obtained from the headquarters of the National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C ., at $i.oo each, paper edition, and $I.5o, mounted on linen. This is the most legible map of convenient size issued in America since the Peace Conference in Paris. with which the concert of nations exerts its influence for peace. Writing in the NATIONAL OGRAP.\lPIC MAGAZINE for December, TI18, i)r. Ed win A. Grosvenor, in "The Races of Eu rope," said of the then forthcoming peace conference: "For the first time in human experi ence, the effort is being made ly victors after a great war to trace the new fron tiers in accordance with the racial aspira tions and affinities of the peoples in volved. B ecause of the impossibility of defining exactly the limits of a race, many heart-burnings are inevitable in the new adjustment of European boundaries.' The results of the Peace Conference at Iaris and of the subsequent conferences of the Supreme Council are represented in the Mlap of Europe which is issued as a supplement to this number of '1Ti (G:oRAPHIC.f t The student will find the National Geo grapic Society's Map of the Races of Europe, issued as a supplement to the December, 1918, number, of special interest for comparative purposes, showing to what extent ethnographic frontiers have been followed in the revision of the political map of Europe. Extra copies of the "Races" map may be obtained from the head quarters of the Society in \ashington; paper, 50 cents; linen, $1.oo.