National Geographic : 1921 Sep
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President HENRY WHITE, Vice-President JOHN JOY EDSON, Treasurer O. P . AUSTIN, Secretary BOYD TAYLOR, Assistant Treasurer GEORGE W. IUTCHISON, Associate Secretary FREDERICK V. COVILLE, Chairman Committee on Research EDWIN P. GROSVENOR, General Counsel EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE WILLIAM J. SHOWALTER Assistant Editor CHARLES J. BELL President American Security and Trust Company JOHN JOY EDSON Chairman of the Board, Wash ington Loan & Trust Company DAVID FAIRCHILD In Charge of Agricultural Ex plorations, U. S. Department of Agriculture C. HART MERRIAM Member National Academy of Sciences O. P . AUSTIN Statistician GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner U. S. Bureau of Lighthouses GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D Formerly Member U. S. Con gress, Faunal Naturalist, and Wild-game Photographer GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor S RALPH A. GRAVES FR Assistant Editor J. R . HILDEBRAND, Chief of School Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES GRANT SQUIRES Military Intelligence Division, General Staff, New York WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT Ex-President of the United States C. M. CHESTER Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, For merly Supt. U. S. Naval Ob servatory FREDERICK V. COVILLE Botanist, U. S. Department of Agriculture RUDOLPH KAUFFMANN Managing Editor The Evening Star T. L. MACDONALD M.D., F.A.C.S. S. N. D. NORTH Formerly Director U. S. Bureau of Census JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor National Geo graphic Magazine ;ANKLIN L. FISHER Chief of Illustrations Division ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL Inventor of the telephone J. HOWARD GORE Prof. Emeritus Mathematics, The George Washington University A. W . GREELY Arctic Explorer, Major General U. S. Army GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine GEORGE OTIS SMITH Director of U. S. Geological Survey O. H . TITTMANN Formerly Superintendent of U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey HENRY WHITE Member American Peace Com mission, and Recently U. S. Ambassador to France, Italy, etc. ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" TO CARRY out the purposes for which it was founded thirty-three years ago, the National Geo graphic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts are invested in the Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. ARTICLES and photographs are desired. For ma terial which the Magazine can use, generous remu neration is made. Contributions should be accoim panied by an addressed return envelope and postage. IMMEDIATELY after the terrific eruption of the world's largest crater, Mt. Katmai, in Alaska, a Na tional Geographic Society expedition was sent to make observations of this remarkable phenomenon. Four expeditions have followed and the extraordinary scientific data resultant given to the world. In this vicinity an eighth wonder of the world was discovered and explored-"The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes," a vast area of steaming, spouting fissures. IThis area has been created a National Monument by proclamation of the President of the United States. T HE Society organized and supported a party, which made a three-year study of Alaskan glaciers. GEOLOGISTS were sent to study the Mt. Pelee, La Soufriere, and Messina disasters. AT AN expense of over $50,000 The Society sent a notable series of expeditions into Peru to investi gate the traces of the Inca race. Their discoveries form a large share of our knowledge of a civilization which was waning when Pizarro first set foot in Peru. THE Society also had the honor of subscribing a substantial sum to the historic expedition of Admiral Peary, who discovered the North Pole. NOT long ago The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,0o0 was given by individual members through The Society to the Federal Government when the congressional appropriation for the purchase was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees of California were thereby saved for the American people and incorporated into a National Park. HE Society is conducting extensive explorations and excavations in Northwestern New Mexico, which was one of the most densely populated areas in North America before Columbus came, a region where prehistoric peoples lived in vast communal dwellings whose ruins are ranked second to none of ancient times in point of architecture, and whose customs, ceremonies, and name have been engulfed in an oblivion more complete than any other people who left traces comparable to theirs. Copyright, 1921, by National Geographic Society, Washington. D. C. All rights reserved. Entered at the Post-Office at Washington, D. C ., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of post age provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July i, 1918.