National Geographic : 1922 Aug
206 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE ij t60 150 140 130 120 110 00 90 80 70 60 Drawn by A. H . Bumstead and James M. Darley A SKETCH MAP OF THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SHOWING PROPOSED ROUTES OF AIRCRAFT OVER THE ARCTIC ZONE For many centuries, explorers, sailing in the interest of commerce, sought Northwest and Northeast Passages to the Far East. After many failures which proved costly in lives and ships, both arctic routes were discovered, but the perils of the tortuous passages through icy seas far outweighed any advantage of shorter distance. Now, new northern passages are contemplated - passages through the air from northern North America to northern Europe and Asia; the Old and New Worlds are only a few "hops" apart, as the airplane flies. The northern continents, separated by the Arctic, seem, in the vision of the airman, not much farther apart than are Africa and Europe, separated by the Mediterranean, or North and South America, separated by the Caribbean.