National Geographic : 1922 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President HENRY WHITE, Vice-President JOHN JOY EDSON, Treasurer O. P . AUSTIN, Secretary BOYD TAYLOR, Assistant Treasurer GEORGE W. IIUTCHISON. Associate Secretary FREDERICK V. COVILLE, Chairman Committee on Research EI)WIN P. GROSVENOR, General Counsel EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR WILLIAM J. SHOWAL Assistant Editor CHARLES J. BELL President American Security and Trust Company JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor TER RALPH A. GRAVES FRANKLIN L. FISHER Assistant Editor Chief of Illustrations Division J. R. HILDEBRAND, Chief of School Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL Chief Justice of the United States Inventor of the telephone GRANT SQUIRES J. HOWARD GORE JOIIN JOY EDSON Military Intelligence Division, Prof. Emeritus Mathematics, The Chairman of the Board, Wash- General Staff, New York George Washington University ington Loan & Trust Company D)AVID) FAIRCHILD In Charge of Agricultural Ex plorations, U. S. Department of Agriculture C. HART MERRIAM Member National Academy of Sciences O. P . AUSTIN Statistician GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner U. S. Bureau of Lighthouses GEORGE SIIIRAS, 3D Formerly Member U. S. Con gress, Faunal Naturalist, and Wild-game Photographer C. M. CHESTER Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, For merly Supt. U. S. Naval Ob servatory A. W. GREELY Arctic Explorer, Major General U. S. Army GILBERT GROSVENOR FREDERICK V. COVILLE Editor of National Geographic Botanist, U. S . Department of Magazine Agriculture GEORGE OTIS SMITH RUDOLPH KAUFFMANN Director of U. S. Geological Managing Editor The Evening Survey Star T. L. MACDONALD M.D., F.A.C.S. S. N. D. NORTII Formerly Director U. S. Bureau of Census O. H . TITTMANN Formerly Superintendent U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey IENRY WIITE Member American Peace Com mission, Formerly U. S. Ambas sador to France. Italy. etc. E. LESTER JONES JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Director U. S. Coast and Geo- Associate Editor National Geo- STEPHEN T. MATHER detic Survey graphic Magazine Director National Park Service ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" TO carry out the purposes for which it was founded thirty-four years ago, the Na tional Geographic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts are invested in the Magazine itself or ex pended directly to promote geographic knowledge. ARTICLES and photographs are desired. For material which the Magazine can use, generous remuneration is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed return envelope and postage. IMMEDIATELY after the terrific eruption of the world's largest crater, Mt. Katmai, in Alaska, a National Geographic Society expedition was sent to make observations of this remarkable phenom enon. Four expeditions have followed and the extra ordinary scientific data resultant given to the world. In this vicinity an eighth wonder of the world was discovered and explored-"The Valley of Ten Thou sand Smokes," a vast area of steaming, spouting fissures. As a result of The Society's discoveries this area has been created a National Monument by proc lamation of the President of the United States. AT an expense of over $50,000 The Society sent a notable series of expeditions into Peru to investigate the traces of the Inca race. Their discoveries form a large share of our knowledge of a civilization which was waning when Pizarro first set foot in Peru. THE Society also had the honor of sub scribing a substantial sum to the historic expedition of Admiral Peary, who discovered the North Pole. NOT long ago The Society granted $25,000. and in addition $75,000 was given by in dividual members through The Society to the Federal Government when the congressional appropriation for the purchase was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees of California were thereby saved for the American people and incorporated into a National Park. THE Society is conducting extensive ex plorations and excavations in northwestern New Mexico, which was one of the most densely populated areas in North America before Columbus came, a region where prehistoric peoples lived in vast communal dwellings whose ruins are ranked second to none of ancient times in point of architecture, and whose customs, ceremonies and name have been engulfed in an oblivion more complete than any other people who left traces comparable to theirs. Copyright, 1922, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C . All rights reserved. Entered at the Post-Office at Washington. D. C., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of post age provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July i, 1918.