National Geographic : 1925 Dec
596 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Pin Bones - Stifle Flank Hoek , Switch 1 Pastern TIlE NOMENCLATURE OF THE DAIRY COW lawns and pastures, thickening and in vigorating the grass from which they were originally produced, and, when converted into charcoal, make a filter used in refining sugar. Glue and soaps, candles, cosmetics, oleo margarine, and glycerin, tankage, blood meal, and the trainloads of commercial fertilizer that feed the land and make tillage and trucking possible upon many otherwise sterile soils, likewise come in large measure from cattle. In the stomachs of "veals" is found the curdling ferment known as rennet, used by pharmacists and a prime necessity in cheese-making; from a tiny gland upon the surface of the brain of cattle we de rive an extract, valued in medicinal prep arations, known as "pineal substance." Unfortunately, there is in each animal but one pineal, of the size of a pea; so that it takes 15.00ooo cattle to produce one pound of product! Science has also contrived to fashion a substantial list of manufactured articles from milk, of which casein is the chief nitrogenous element. It is the "curd," the first and principal use of which is for making the cheese so rich in nutrients ; but this same casein is also an ingredient in the manufacture of telephone receivers, combs, fan handles, cigarette holders, and various other articles in daily use. It is also an important constituent of the coat ing for the paper on which the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE is printed and which is in part responsible for the high quality of its illustrations. WHY A COW CHEWS HER "CUD" Is it any wonder such a benefactor of mankind chews her cud with infinite com placency ? The cow, the camel, the bison, and the buffalo; the yak, the deer and elk and antelope, the sheep and the goat all have the cud-chewing habit; and while so in dulging themselves are apparently at peace with the world. This habit is formed as soon as the young begin eating roughage or solids of any kind, hay and grain being offered to calves after they are 10 days old. These foods are first received unchewed into a commodious anteroom, the rumen, which is not a true digestive organ. A second receptacle, containing fluid, acts with the first, but only after the rumen is well stored with food and water does the cud chewing performance begin. It is the churning of the food by invol untary muscular action, together with action by the second stomach and lower part of the gullet, that causes the forma tion of the so-called "cud," which is re gurgitated when the animal is at rest. Horn dEar Forehead -EyeOrbit -Eye ostil Muzzle.