National Geographic : 1927 Jul
WHERE OUR MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES ROAM forests of the Appalachian Mountains, its range extends from Canada to Key West and the Rio Grande. It affords an example of that form of dimorphism in which females hatched from the same lot of eggs take different colors, al though the males always adhere to the one form. The caterpillars, having heads resem bling those of serpents (see text, page 91), are found on a great variety of trees and shrubs, in cluding tulip trees, birches, wild cherries, apples, poplars, and ashes. Parnassian Butterfly (Parnassius smintheus Dbldy. & Hew. Plate VI, figure 4).-The Par nassians are Alpine or arctic in habitat. P . smintheus is found in the high mountain regions from New Mexico to Montana and thence to the Pacific coast. The caterpillars resemble those of Papilios,but are darkly colored and are found wandering on the ground amid the scanty vegetation of their Alpine abode. Heodes cupreus Edw. (Plate VII, figure i). This species is found in dry country, its favorite habitat being eastern Oregon and Wyoming. Atala (Eumacus atala Poey. Plate VII, fig ure 2). -This Southern form is found only sparingly in Florida and Cuba. The larva feeds on zamia, one of the few remaining cycads of the Coal Age. The butterflies are all tame and may be hand picked from flowers with a little care. Wanderer (Feniseca tarquinius Fabr. Plate VII, figure 3). - This little Copper is found all over the Atlantic States from Nova Scotia to the Carolinas. It also inhabits the Mississippi Valley. There is but the one species of this genus known. The larva feeds on the masses of white bark-lice found on alder bushes, greatly reducing the numbers of the lice. This is our only carnivorous butterfly. Great Purple Hair-streak (Atlides halesus Hbn.- also known as Thecla halesus. Plate VII, figure 4 ). - The Great Purple Hair-streak is our largest Hair-streak species. It is very common in Central America and Mexico. Al though a tropical form, it extends from Cali fornia to Florida and occasionally occurs as far north as southern Illinois. Its larvae feed on the mistletoe growing on oaks. Hypaurotis crysalus Edw. (Plate VII, fig ure 5). - This is a Western butterfly. It is found generally in California, Utah, and Ari zona. Philotes sonorensis Feld. (Plate VII, figure 6). - This is a Southern butterfly whose range includes southern California and Mexico. It is prized for the curious red markings, so excep tional in one of the Blues. Bronze Copper (Heodes thoe Bdv.- also known as Chrysophanus thoe. Plate VII, fig ures 7, 9, and io).- This is a rare insect al though it occurs in northern Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa, and the upper Mississippi Valley. It has two families a year, and winters as an egg. It finds both goldenrod and Canada thistle much to its liking. Glaucopsyche lygdamus Dbldy. (Plate VII, figure 8).-Although the exact range of this silvery blue butterfly is not known, it has been found in the Atlantic States from the upper waters of the Susquehanna to Georgia. In its northern range it reaches westward to Ohio, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Strymon martialis H. S. (Plate VII, figure II). - The range of this butterfly is very limited; it is found only in southern Florida and the An tilles. American Copper (Heodes hypophlaeas Bdv. Plate VII, figure 12).-These little butterflies are found in the Atlantic States. In the north ern part of their range they are double-brooded, and in the southern part triple-brooded. It win ters as a chrysalis. It is sorrel in color, match ing the sorrel on which it feeds. Strymon acis Dru. (Plate VII, figure 13). Southern Florida is the favorite haunt of this butterfly. Atalopedes campestris Bdv. (Plate VIII, figure i).- This butterfly was first found by Boisduval in California. Some authorities have considered it identical with, or at least a variety of, the Sachem or Velvet-spotted Skipper, Ata lopedes huron, but Scudder declared that the specimens he examined would not permit of such a conclusion. At any rate, it is a very close relative of the Sachem, which ranges from the Catskills of New York to Florida and west ward. Its larvae feed on Bermuda grass, fast ening together a number of blades and spinning in the cylindrical cavity thus formed silken webs which serve as retreats, from which they emerge only when feeding. Arctic Skipper (Carterocephalus palaemon Pall. - also known as Pamphila palaemon and Pamphila mandan. Plate VIII, figure 2).-The range of this butterfly extends from southern Labrador south to the White Mountains and the Adirondacks, and thence westward to the sum mits of the Sierras in northern California and to southeastern Alaska. Its caterpillars feed on grasses. Silver-spotted Skipper (Epargyreus tityrus Fabr. Plate VIII, figure 3).- The range of the Silver-spotted Skipper reaches from Quebec to Vancouver and as far south as the Isthmus of Panama. It has one generation annually in the North, and is double- or even triple-brooded in the South and within the Tropics. The cater pillar feeds on leguminous plants and is espe cially fond of wisteria and the locust tree. Tessellated Skipper (Pyrgus tessellata Scud. - also known as Hesperia tessellata and Hes peria montivaga. Plate VIII, figure 4).- This, one of the commonest of the southern Hes perids, claims the whole of the United States for its range. Its caterpillars feed on holly hocks, Indian mallows, and related plants. Eurycides urania W. & H. (Plate VIII, fig ure 5). -This beautiful butterfly is a tropical species, but on rare occasions individuals have been found within the southern borders of the United States.