National Geographic : 1929 Jul
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE colonizing the world's principal potato-growing continents. The species reproduced are: Leptinotarsa 1o lineata Say. (Plate XVIII, figure 2), habitat Canada to Costa Rica; Leptinotarsa flavitarsis Guer. (Plate XVIII, figure 3), occurring in Guatemala; Lema trilineataOliv. (Plate XVIII, figure 9), habitat North America and the West Indies; Doryphora flavozonata Blanch. (Plate XVIII, figure 18), habitat Bolivia; Doryphora kollari Stal. (Plate XVIII, figure 19), occur ring in Brazil; Doryphora mirabilis Stal. (Plate XVIII, figure 20), habitat Mexico and Guate mala; Doryphora flavozonata Blanch. (Plate XIX, figure I), native of Bolivia; Sagra Bor neoensis Lac. (Plate XIX, figure 2), native of Borneo, and ranging all through the oriental region; Sagra fabricii Lac. Plate XIX, fig ure Io), habitat Java. Metallic Wood-borer Family (Bupresti dae). There are some 5,ooo known species of metallic wood-borers, or Buprestids, in the world, of which about 200 are found in America. Many of them are among our most showy beetles, their metallic wing cases often being rich in brilliant iridescence. The wing cases of some eastern species are a brilliant green, and are used for dress trimmings. South American Indian chieftains often make anklets of the bronze wing cases of a gigantic South American species. The larvae of the larger species of Bupres tids are nearly all wood-borers. They usually live under bark, and make broad, shallow bur rows, galleries, and chambers. So regular are their habits of burrowing that a trained entomologist can recognize the species that made the traceries long after they are gone, just as a bank teller recognizes the signature of a customer. Their bodies are long, somewhat flattened, the forward seg ments so joined with the small head as to make them appear to possess large, flat heads hence their popular name of hammer-heads and flat-headed borers. The most injurious of the Buprestid beetles is the flat-headed apple-tree borer, which pre fers apple trees, but makes itself at home in many other kinds. The adults appear about May, and are a dull, metallic brown, except the abdomen, which is a rich, metallic greenish blue. The young larvae build their nests in the soft sapwood, but as they grow older, bore deeper into the heartwood where they hibernate. In the spring, they bore back almost to the sur face, where they build their pupal cells in which to undergo the sleep out of which they shall awaken full-fledged beetles. Another injurious Buprestid is the peach tree borer. With wing cases that look like hammered copper, it is a beautiful creature. Still another is the red-necked cane-borer which causes the "gouty galls" on blackberries and raspberries. The adults emerge in May or June, and lay their eggs where the leaf axil joins the stem. Their larvae girdle the stem, and by early August the galls begin to form, if the girdling operation has been successful. The larvae spend the winter in the gall, or, if none has been formed, burrow into the pith of the brier stem. Many of the larger Ameri can Buprestids are particularly fond of pine trees, and prey on conifers exclusively. Some of the smaller species are leaf-miners. The species reproduced are: Chrysobothris femorata Oliv. (Plate XVIII, figure 5), a North American species; Julodis viridipes Cast. (Plate XIX, figure 5), occurring in Africa; Hyperantha haemorrhoa Fairm. (Plate XX, figure 6), a South American species, living es pecially in Venezuela; Psiloptera bicarinata Thunbg. (Plate XX, figure 7), occurring in French Guiana; Stigmodera variabilis Don. (Plate XX, figure 8), habitat Australia; Bu prestis rufipes Oliv. (Plate XXI, figure 2), habitat eastern United States; Buprestis au rulenta Linn. (Plate XXI, figure 3), occurring in northwestern United States; Chrysochroa fulgidissima Schoenh. (Plate XXI, figure 14), a Japanese species; Sternocera bennigseni Ker rem. (Plate XXII, figure i), habitat Africa; Sternocera hunteri Waterh. (Plate XXII, fig ure 3), habitat Africa; Conognatha amoena Kirby. (Plate XXII, figure 4), habitat Brazil; Belionota sumptuosa Cast. & Gory. (Plate XXII, figure 6), habitat Malaysia; Chryso chroa buqueti Gory. (Plate XXII, figure 7), habitat Indo-China and Java; Chrysochroa ed wardsi Hope. (Plate XXII, figure 8), occurring in southern Asia; Stigmodera macularia Dono van. (Plate XXII, figure 9), habitat Australia; Chrysochroa ocellata Fabricius. (Plate XXII, figure io), habitat southern Asia; Stigmodera suturalis Donovan. (Plate XXII, figure II), an Australian species. Meloid Beetle Family (Mcloidae). The Meloid beetles, of which there are some 1,5oo known species, including the 200 that are Ameri can, have a fascinating life history. Some spe cies prey on bees, others on locusts, and still others on divers forms of insect life. The one parasitic on locusts lays its eggs in spots fre quented by the locusts. In a few days these hatch, and the baby Meloes proceed early and actively with their prime business of finding a host. Crawling around in large numbers, locust egg deposits soon are found, and presently most of the eggs become provender for the wander ing host. After a preliminary feast the young ster makes seven different changes before reach ing the adult stage. At one point a change results in a retrogression in its climb to adult hood. The species reproduced are: Epicauta vit tata Fab. (Plate XVIII, figure 6), found in North America; Tegrodera aloga Skinn. (Plate XIX, figure 7), habitat California; Zonabris oculata Thunbg. (Plate XIX, figure 8), a South African species. Long-horned Beetle Family (Cerambyci dae). There are about 13,000 species of long horned beetles in the world, of which some 600 belong to North America. They include such pests as the round-headed apple-tree borer, the oak pruner, and the twig girdler.