National Geographic : 2015 Nov
If countries do nothing +8.1°F With pledges +5.6°F 3.6°F limit Under current policy +7°F More than sufficient Pledges rated by CAT, ability to limit warming to 3.6°F Sufficient Insufficient Highly insufficient Not rated No pledge Average projected warming by 2100 above preindustrial levels COSTA RICA PERU CHILE MEXICO UNITED STATES CANADA BRAZIL CHINA JAPAN SOUTH KOREA NEW ZEALAND KAZAKHSTAN RUSSIA SOUTH AFRICA INDIA BHUTAN INDONESIA AUSTRALIA ETHIOPIA MOROCCO SWITZERLAND UKRAINE NORWAY E.U. SOURCE: DATA FOR CLIMATE ACTION TRACKER COMPILED BY CLIMATE ANALYTICS, ECOFYS, NEWCLIMATE INSTITUTE, AND POTSDAM INSTITUTE FOR CLIMATE IMPACT RESEARCH World NATIONAL PLEDGES When countries adopted the 1997 international treaty known as the Kyoto Protocol, they made binding pledges to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions over two decades. To mon itor progress on those pledges and other climatechange efforts, a coalition of research organizations created a database called the Climate Action Tracker (CAT). This map reflects CAT’s latest assessment of the major greenhouse gasemitting countries and a sample of minor ones, which together account for 80 percent of global emissions. It’s not always political leaders who set goals. A June 2015 lawsuit in the Netherlands—brought by a sustainableliving foundation and Dutch citizens—argued that the country’s 17 percent emissions goal wasn’t ambitious enough. A court ruled that it should raise that figure to 25 percent, to bolster the European Union’s broader emissions reduction plan. Belgium and Norway are now facing similar lawsuits. The U.S . climate action plan is considered relatively unam bitious, less than its fair share of what’s needed. Bhutan’s commitment to maintaining forest cover makes it one of the few negative emitters. Chile’s pledge is deemed inade quate to counter its current level of emissions. Talk versus action In 2011 world governments set a goal of limiting global warming to 2°C (3.6°F). Scientists see three possible out comes, depending on what action countries actually take. Who’s keeping up? To achieve the goal of limiting Earth’s warming, climate analysts track which countries’ pledges are having the most impact. Map data based on pledges made for 2020 and beyond. NASA satellite data showed a global forest loss of 888,000 square miles from 2000 to 2012—almost three times as much as the forest that regrew. Traditional cooking stoves use fuels such as wood, dung, and crop waste. Emissions vary depending on the fuel and the efficiency of the stove, but replacing these stoves with ecofriendly models could cut fuel and limit emissions.