National Geographic : 2015 Aug
BORGIA FAMILY MEDICI THEOPHYLACT FAMILY Marozia Pope Sergius III DELLA ROVERE 0 A.D. 500 400 200 300 100 500 600 700 900 800 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1300 1800 1900 2000 42 Martyred/killed Canonized/beatified Country of origin A key to the popes 266 popes 80 Canonized (sainted) 9 Beatified (blessed) 209 from Italy 16 from France 41 from other/ unknown Antipopes The papal line begins with Peter, the disciple Jesus Christ chose as the “rock” on which to build his church, according to the Gospel of Matthew. The unbroken succession, which continues with Francis, includes pontiffs who are revered, such as Peter and John Paul II, and others notorious for their transgressions. Forces led by Muhammad conquer Mecca, ushering in the age of Islam Umayyads conquer the Iberian Peninsula The Frankish King Pépin establishes the first papal states with a donation of territory St. Gregory III is the last pope from Asia (Syria) Gregory XI moves the papacy back to Rome (last French pope) Alexander VI of the Borgia family has multiple mistresses and illegitimate children. His son Cesare becomes a cardinal and the model for Machiavelli’s prince. Last Moors in Spain are defeated Martin Luther is excommuni- cated by Pope Leo X for re- fusing to recant his 95 theses “St. Gregory the Great,” by Francisco de Goya “St. Peter,” by Peter Paul Rubens St. Gregory the Great The first monk to become pope, he consolidates papal territories and helps shift the church’s focus from the fading Roman Empire toward western Europe, initiating the conversion of the British Isles to Christianity. Avignon Papacy With political instability in Italy, Clement V moves the papacy to Avignon, marking a period of French influence. He works to divert the warriors of feuding Euro- pean countries into the Crusades. Western Schism A split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417 sees three rival popes vying for authority. The election of Martin V by cardinals from all three factions secures the line of Roman popes as legitimate. Constantinople falls to the Ottomans SAINTSAND SINNERS BORGIA FAMILY MEDICI THEOPHYLACT FAMILY Marozia Pope Sergius III DELLA ROVERE 0 A.D. 500 400 200 300 100 500 600 700 900 800 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1300 1800 1900 2000 42 Martyred/killed Canonized/beatified Country of origin A key to the popes 266 popes 80 Canonized (sainted) 9 Beatified (blessed) 209 from Italy 16 from France 41 from other/ unknown Antipopes Bishops of Rome Little is known about the first leaders of the church, who would come to be known as the bishops of Rome, a title still held by popes today. The earliest popes are all considered saints by the Roman Catholic Church. Jesus Christ is crucified Arabs raid Rome, sacking the original St. Peter’s A synod decrees popes must be elected by cardinals Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics split in the Great Schism of 1054 Pépin’s son Charle- magne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III Pius VI dies a prisoner of Napoleon in France Galileo is placed under house arrest, and several of his works are condemned by his former friend, Pope Urban VIII The Catholic Church, a major landowner in France, has many of its holdings confis- cated during the 1789 French Revolution John VIII is the first pope to be assassinated St. Pontian is the first pope to resign “Pope Formosus and Stephen VII,” by Jean-Paul Laurens Pope Julius II ordering Bramante, Michelangelo, and Raphael to construct St. Peter’s, by Horace Vernet Renaissance Rulers Powerful Italian families dominate the papacy during the Renaissance. Their reigns are known for deca- dence and nepotism but also for a flourishing of the arts under their generous patronage. Reforming Popes Church leaders convene a council in the 1540s to reform the church. They approve new religious orders that spread the Catholic faith through worldwide missions. Saeculum Obscurum From 872 to 1012 the papacy falls under a dark period of corruption. In the Cadaver Synod of 897, Pope Stephen VII has the corpse of his predecessor disinterred, garbed in papal robes, and put on trial. Theophylact Papacy The papacy by the tenth century becomes embroiled in Roman familial struggles for power. A key figure is a matron of the Theophylact family, Marozia. Her illegiti- mate son with Pope Sergius III is appointed pope (John XI), as are other descendants. Antipopes Disputes over papal succession at times led to the election of rival popes. Those deemed illegitimate by the church are called antipopes. St. Clement I is said to have been tied to an anchor thrown into the Black Sea Hippolytus is the first antipope BORGIA FAMILY MEDICI THEOPHYLACT FAMILY Marozia Pope Sergius III DELLA ROVERE 0 A.D. 500 400 200 300 100 500 600 700 900 800 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1300 1800 1900 2000 42 Martyred/killed Canonized/beatified Country of origin A key to the popes 266 popes 80 Canonized (sainted) 9 Beatified (blessed) 209 from Italy 16 from France 41 from other/ unknown Antipopes A synod decrees popes must be elected by cardinals Pope Urban II calls for Christians to deliver Jerusalem from Muslim control Francis is the first pope from South America St. John Paul II is the first non-Italian pope in 450 years Leo XIII issues Rerum Novarum, a seminal work on Catholic social justice The First Vatican Council codifies the infallibility of the pontiff The Lateran Treaty establishes Vatican City’s sovereignty The Second Vatican Council encourages ties with other religions and allows Mass to be said in languages other than Latin Constantine converts to Christianity St. Pontian is the first pope to resign Last Roman emperor is deposed by Goths Constantine convenes the Council of Nicaea, where the church asserts the divine nature of Jesus Christ Knights, from “Battle of Montgisard near Ascalon,” by Charles-Philippe Larivière Mussolini and Cardinal Pietro Gasparri signing the Lateran Treaty, 1929 Crusades against Muslims Crusades against pagans Crusades against Christians St. Leo the Great persuades Attila the Hun not to march on Rome Persecution The growing influence of the church in its first centuries is seen as a threat to Rome’s rulers. Worshippers who refuse to take part in pagan sacrifices and other acts of loyalty to the state are often imprisoned or killed. A Modern Vatican The borders of the modern Vatican City are set by a treaty with Mussolini’s government, in exchange for papal neutrality in international affairs. JASON TREAT AND KELSEY NOWAKOWSKI, NGM STAFF; MAIA WACHTEL SOURCES: EAMON DUFFY, SAINTS AND SINNERS; JAMES WEISS, BOSTON COLLEGE IMAGES (BY ROW, FROM TOP): MUSEO NACIONAL DEL PRADO/ART RESOURCE, NY; ALBUM/ART RESOURCE, NY (TWO); RMN-GRAND PALAIS/ART RESOURCE, NY; GIANNI DAGLI ORTI, ART ARCHIVE AT ART RESOURCE, NY; ALFREDO DAGLI ORTI, ART ARCHIVE AT ART RESOURCE, NY; CULTURE CLUB/ GETTY IMAGES Crusades The papacy rallies European leaders to seize the Holy Land from its Muslim rulers. The period that follows also sees Crusades against European pagans and even other Christians. CELIBACY AND THE PAPACY Clerics above the rank of subdea- con, including the pope, have been expected to be celibate since the early days of the Roman Catholic Church. Yet some popes kept concu- bines, and some were married and had children before entering the clergy. Conversion The Roman Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity in 312 and moves the capital of his newly Chris- tian empire to Constantinople. The empire’s spiritual center, however, remains with the papacy in Rome. Emperor Constantine Hippolytus is the first antipope St. Gelasius is the last pope to come from Africa St. Innocent I succeeds his father, St. Anastasius I, as pope Roman Question The rise of Italian nationalism and the formation of the Kingdom of Italy cut short the political gains made by the papacy after Napoleon’s defeat. Papal territories shrink to just the Vatican and its immediate surroundings.