National Geographic : 2014 Jul
ALGERIA ANGOLA ARGENTINA BOTSWANA BOLIVIA BENIN BRAZIL BURUNDI CHAD CONGO DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO CAMEROON DJIBOUTI EGYPT ERITREA GAMBIA GABON GUINEA GUYANA CÔTE D'IVOIRE (IVORY COAST) LIBERIA LESOTHO LIBYA MADAGASCAR MALAWI MALI MOROCCO MAURITANIA MALTA MOZAMBIQUE NIGER SURINAME PARAGUAY GUINEA-BISSAU RWANDA SAUDI ARABIA SOUTH AFRICA SENEGAL SIERRA LEONE TOGO TUNISIA TANZANIA UGANDA BURKINA FASO URUGUAY NAMIBIA SWAZILAND YEMEN ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE KENYA SOUTH SUDAN CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC SUDAN ETHIOPIA SOMALIA NIGERIA SOMALILAND Antananarivo Khartoum Mogadishu Cairo Addis Ababa Rabat Tunis Tripoli Dakar Conakry Accra Bamako Monrovia Abidjan Yamoussoukro Ouagadougou Niamey Abuja Lomé Yaoundé Kinshasa Brazzaville Dar es Salaam Dodoma Nairobi Kigali Kampala Luanda Cape Town Pretoria (Tshwane) Bloemfontein Lusaka Harare Maputo Maiduguri Kano Kaduna Lagos Durban Port Elizabeth Pietermaritzburg Kananga Mbuji-Mayi Johannesburg Lubumbashi Soweto Douala Cotonou Porto-Novo Gurué Ibadan Ilorin Port Harcourt Aba Benin City Warri AFRICA AFRICA EQUATOR SAHARA ProSavana corridor SAH E L Xai-Xai Bananalandia Hoyo Hoyo Limpopo River Zambezi River Rye Rapeseed Sugar beet Sunflower Soybean Potato Barley Groundnut Sugarcane Millet Wheat Rice Sorghum Cassava Oil palm Corn Africa’s key crops dry weight, million metric tons 0 50 100 PRODUCTION POTENTIAL* THAILAND Fertilizer prices U.S. dollars per metric ton MALI $282 $514 Total margins and overheads Taxes and levies Finance costs Transport cost Product cost $8 22¢ $229 $31 $14 $252 $165 $20 $32 $45 58 Decades ago the green revolution increased crop yields in India and other developing countries using fertilizer, irrigation, and improved seeds. But it never took root in Africa, where yields have barely risen since the 1960s. Less than 5 percent of arable land in sub-Saharan Africa is irri- gated. As the continent rapidly urbanizes, an already stressed food system will lose farmers and add a staggering number of consumers. But with modern farming techniques and pro- grams to help farmers afford them, this potential breadbasket could not only feed itself but also export a surplus. Africa’s Food Challenge What African farmers pay for fertilizer can be more than 82 percent higher than the cost to farmers in Thailand. Factors raising the price include poor infrastruc- ture, especially roads, and weak or corrupt governments. The High Cost of Fertilizer Boosting the Harvest More than 24 percent of the population in sub-Saharan Africa is malnourished. Bringing production of just 16 key crops up to their potential could yield more than 205 million additional metric tons of food. *Potential is based on current best practices in areas with similar climates.